I did some more research today. I am publishing it for my readers. Experts say that terrorism is result of social isolation. Expert opinion is here for you. Crime has also similar problem. So real security is only possible by filling the gap here. Connection is the real solution to terrorism and wars everywhere. If we can connect everybody with the society we solve the security problem. How are can we do this?
Intelligent internet is the answer. Google search is giving 25 billion search results to a word search for the word home. This is impossible task. Internet users cannot connect with the knowledge in these 25 billion web sites. We have to let the internet users connect to the knowledge and make them feel that they are all connected with the knowledge. The search must give the answer. Answer is the solution. When internet users start to experience that they get same answers like all the world then they will know they are not isolated, but they are totally connected. That is what must do to fix the security problem.
As you can see here I put the news that IBM has built cognitive selflearning chips. These chips must be used for internet search. They are going to give the good internet answers for internet users around the world. They have this capacity. People must demand them for internet use. They will make this intelligent internet search possible. So everybody will get same answers and this will make everybody connected. Connection is the real solution for all security problem. IBM must stop being greedy and put this technology to the service of internet users for national and global security.
Don’t Look for Mental Illness to Explain Terrorists Acts
- 1. Rich Daly
Psychiatry may have a larger role to play in addressing the response to terrorism than in preventing it, according to mental health experts.
George Everly Jr., Ph.D.: “The ultimate tool of the terrorist is not death and destruction, but fear and demoralization.”
Credit: Loyola College in Maryland
Social factors, rather than mental illness, are at the root of even the most violent terrorist acts, according to mental health experts who have studied terrorism and the people who commit it. For this and other reasons, psychiatry appears ill-suited as a tool to counter modern terrorism.
Those were among the conclusions of a panel that addressed the psychocultual foundations of modern terrorism during APA’s annual meeting.
Psychiatrists who have examined terrorists—including failed suicide bombers—have found little psychiatric illness, said Dipak Gupta, Ph.D., a professor of political science at San Diego State University. Instead, the driving force behind their actions tends to be the universal desire to be an important member of a group. That desire, when channeled by a so-called political entrepreneur, or charismatic leader, can justify almost any act. Thus the psychological motivation behind modern Islamic terrorism is the same that led to earlier forms of terrorism, including anarchy and “New Left” terrorism in the 20th century.
Gupta, author of a 2001 book, Path to Collective Madness: A Study in Social Order and Political Pathology, said the primal need to belong allows someone to hate an enemy more than they love their own lives.
Because the motivations behind terrorism are so basic to human nature it is almost impossible to create a terrorist profile. “They are indistinguishable from all of us,” he said.
The types of people who may commit terrorist acts also have expanded in recent years to include women. Jihadist groups have moved from condemning to embracing acts of terrorism by women of their societies, who traditionally filled a supporting role, he noted.
Fahana Ali, an associate international policy analyst at the Rand Corporation, said there is no clear pattern of who a woman jihadist is, which creates a “huge counterterrorist challenge.” These women come from groups in which the collective identity is more important than the individual identity, and its members are willing to do anything for a charismatic leader.
The specific motivations for these women may include a desire to redeem a sense of lost honor stemming from a personal assault, revenge for a lost family member, or as a means to garner respect from other women and men in their group.
“Women become martyrs when their social structure is threatened, such as after the loss of a husband or a male relative,” Ali said.
Stevan Weine, M.D., an associate professor of psychiatry at the University of Illinois at Chicago, said research has identified personal traumatization as a cause of terrorism; however, it is not the key factor but rather one less-important factor among causes that include the make-up of the social group and family factors. Posttrauma mental health care as a terrorism-prevention tool is further complicated, Weine suggested, by the fact that not everyone who is exposed to traumatic events is“ traumatized,” open to help, or will respond to therapy.
Community interventions that aim to prevent terrorist acts among members of different groups, such a Muslim youth in western Europe, should focus on outreach efforts that link that group into the broader society, he said. Western societies should launch initiatives to make the voices of young Muslims heard.
“Making their voices heard based on issues of shared concern with the greater population, seems to have promise as an effective intervention,” Weine said.
George Everly Jr., Ph.D., a professor of psychology at Loyola College in Maryland, said the impact of terrorism is unique because it is a battle fought in large part in the minds of the general population.
“The ultimate tool of the terrorist is not death and destruction, but fear and demoralization,” said Everly, who has extensively studied terrorism-related mental health issues.
Public expectations for a clear “World War II-like victory” are unlikely, so such expectations set the stage for defeat. The public’s demoralization in turn weakens the government’s resolve. A society can fight the demoralizing effects of terrorism by realizing that security is a journey and not a destination, Everly said.
That collective need to feel secure and “invulnerable” was cited as the psychological root for Western society‘s growing acceptance of more military actions and restrictions on its freedoms after terrorism struck the United States on September 11, 2001. David Rothstein, M.D., a Chicago psychiatrist and Amnesty International member, said the collective societal need for security and revenge allows “violence and war to cover a gap in the psyche.”
The more effective way to fight terrorism, from a clinical perspective, appears to be the kind of community interventions other experts discussed. These initiatives should aim to “share our human vulnerability” with members of isolated or marginalized groups, Rothstein said. ▪
American Psychiatric Association
New IBM Chips Learn, Adapt on Their Own
By Barry Levine
|August 18, 2011 11:36AM|
The new IBM processors are the first “neurosynaptic computing chips” from the company, and IBM said the chips emulate the way neurons and synapses work in living organisms. Most important, the new IBM SyNAPSE chips won’t be programmed, as are regular processors. Instead they will learn and adapt on their own.
|One of computing ‘s futures has arrived. On Thursday, IBM announced that its researchers have developed experimental computerchips that can “emulate the brain’s abilities for perception, action and cognition.”
Dubbed cognitive chips, the new processors are the first “neurosynaptic computing chips” from IBM, and the company said the chips emulate the way neurons and synapses work in living organisms.
Most important, they won’t be programmed, as are regular processors. Rather, the company said, their job is “to learn through experiences, find correlations, create hypotheses, and remember — and learn from — the outcomes.”
Two prototype chips have been built and are in testing.
Moving Beyond von Neumann
The chips are part of a major, multiyear cognitive computing initiative at the company and at selected universities, funded in part by $21 million from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). The project is called Systems of Neuromorphic Adaptive Plastic Scalable Electronics, or, appropriately, SyNAPSE.
The goal is nothing less than a system that takes in datafrom multiple sensors and then “dynamically rewires itself” as it responds to changes in the environment, all within a compact size and with a low power requirement.
Dharmendra Modha, IBM Research project leader, said in a statement that the initiative intends to “move beyond the von Neumann paradigm that has been ruling computer architecturefor more than half a century.” He added that the new chips are “another significant step in the evolution of computers from calculators to learning systems.”
The von Neumann paradigm, named for computer pioneer and mathematician John von Neumann, refers to a design architecture in which chips storean instruction set and a data set. In processing, the chip fetches the instructions to work with the data.
The new IBM chips do not have actual biological components, but are designed as “neurosynaptic cores” with integrated memory designed to emulate synapses, computation to resemble neurons, and communicationthat is modeled on axons. The overall processing is intended to mimic the distributed and parallel processing in the brain, driven by events.
Radical New Form of Processing
Both of the working prototypes are 45-nanometer SOI-CMOS and have 256 “neurons.” One prototype has 262,144 “programmable synapses,” and the other 65,536 “learning synapses.” The company said the prototypes have already been used to demonstrate simple apps, such as navigation, machine vision, pattern recognition, associative memory, and classification.
The long-range goal: a chip system with 10 billion neurons and 100 trillion synapses, taking up less than two liters of volume and drawing only one kilowatt.
As an example of how this radical new form of processing might be applied, IBM envisions that a cognitive computing system could monitor the world’s water with a networkof sensors and actuators. Sensor-derived data would include temperature, pressure, wave height, acoustics, and ocean tide, and tsunami warnings would be issued by the system, after it learned what to look for.
Other applications could include an instrumental glove used by a grocer, where the cognitive processing could take data from sights, smells, texture and temperature in a store, and then determine which produce had gone bad or was contaminated.
Al Hilwa, program director for application development at industry research firm IDC, said the new cognitive chips are in keeping with IBM’s major effort to make computing more like thinking, as the company demonstrated when its Watson computer bowled down competitors on the Jeopardy game show earlier this year.
But, Hilwa cautioned, don’t expect an instrumental glove with learning powers anytime soon. Even after the systems are fully developed, he said, they first will be deployed into very high-performance situations, and, some years later, only then made available for the general businessand consumer markets.